Coda Change

Coda Change


Coda Conference: Clinical Knowledge, Advocacy and Community.
Melbourne: 11-14 Sept 2022

Available on


907 episodes

Research in TBI: Separating Apples from Apples

This presentation was delivered by Toby Jeffcote as part of the Critical Care Update Workshop at CODA22, which took place in Melbourne in September 2022. For more information about the CODA Project, go to: 

Feb 19
Mechanical Circulatory support in the cardiac cath lab

This presentation was delivered by Panka Jain as part of the Critical Care Update Workshop at CODA22, which took place in Melbourne in September 2022. For more information about the CODA Project go to: 

Feb 17
APRV and what's new in mechanical ventilation

This presentation was delivered by Luke Torre as part of the Critical Care Update Workshop at CODA22, which took place in Melbourne in September 2022. For more information about the CODA Project, go to: 

Feb 15
Critical kidney and dialo-trauma

This presentation was delivered by Emily See as part of the Critical Care Update Workshop at CODA22, which took place in Melbourne in September 2022. For more information about the CODA Project, go to:

Feb 13
Training in paediatric emergency medicine

This presentation was delivered by Charlotte Harper as part of the Acute Paediatrics Workshop at CODA22, which took place in Melbourne in September 2022. For more information about the CODA Project, go to:

Feb 12
Sepsis in the ED: A case-based review

This presentation was delivered by Elliot Long as part of the Acute Paediatrics Workshop at CODA22, which took place in Melbourne in September 2022. For more information about the CODA Project, go to:

Feb 08
Paediatric Trauma in 2022

This presentation was delivered by Warwick Teague as part of the Acute Paediatrics Workshop at CODA22, which took place in Melbourne in September 2022. For more information about the CODA Project, go to:

Feb 07
Acute Paediatrics Q&A

This Q&A was part of the the Acute Paediatrics Workshop at CODA22, which took place in Melbourne in September 2022. It features Fran Lockie, Jackie Schultz, Alison Boast, and Tony Norris For more information about the CODA Project, go to:

Feb 05
Top Tips for Stabilisation - Paediatric Critical Care Nursing

This presentation was delivered by Tony Norris as part of the Acute Paediatrics Workshop at CODA22, which took place in Melbourne in September 2022. For more information about the CODA Project, go to:

Feb 01
PIMS-TS a clinical update

This presentation was delivered by Alison Boast as part of the Acute Paediatrics Workshop at CODA22, which took place in Melbourne in September 2022. For more information about the CODA Project, go to:

Jan 31
Communication in a Crisis

This presentation was delivered by Jackie Schultz as part of the Acute Paediatrics Workshop at CODA22, which took place in Melbourne in September 2022. For more information about the CODA Project, go to:

Jan 29
Lessons learnt from paediatric morbidity and mortality

This presentation was presented by Fran Lockie as part of the Acute Paediatrics Workshop at CODA22, which took place in Melbourne in September 2022. For more information about the CODA Project, go to:

Jan 24
Optimal Cerebral Perfusion Pressure

Mark Weedon takes us through the increasingly utilised concept of an optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPopt) for each unique patient.  This podcast was recorded at the Brain Symposium which took place in March 2023. For more talks and content like this, visit 

Jul 19, 2023
The Power of Words: Language and Death

Social Worker Victoria Whitfield and Bereavement councilor Louise Sayers discuss the power of words when health professionals are communicating topics around of death and serious injury with relatives and patients in critical care. They use role plays to bring theories to life.  This podcast was recorded at the Brain Symposium which took place in March 2023. For more talks and content like this, visit 

Jul 17, 2023
Carbon impact study of triage services at Ambulance Victoria

Ambulance Victoria has committed to become a more sustainable ambulance service. This includes achieving net zero emissions five years prior to the Victorian State Government commitment of 2050 with additional emissions reduction targets for 2025 and 2030. By fulfilling these targets, the carbon footprint for each patient cared for by Ambulance Victoria will be halved by 2030. It is apparent that to meet these emission reduction targets, Ambulance Victoria's current model of care needs perpetual refinement. Reducing emissions from electricity and fleet start to look easy in comparison to reducing low value care. Delivering better care to a patients according to their particular healthcare needs suggests that our pre-hospital service needs to be reimagined to start prior to any patient picking up the phone to dial Triple 000. Ambulance Victoria are discovering new ways to offer best care for particular patient cohorts via new technologies such as telehealth and the Virtual ED and by partnering across our communities primary and secondary healthcare networks, to offer timely support to those for whom an ambulance doesn't offer the greatest benefit. In 2021, Ambulance Victoria undertook a study to map the carbon pollution associated with its Triage Services and measure changes in carbon pollution resulting from the use of alternate patient care pathways. The analysis revealed interesting results that have implications for pre-hospital service design in the future. We hope that this study offers insight into new ways of thinking for decision makers and enables a triple bottom line approach to assessing the benefit of programs and keeping an awareness of how to serve the community in more environmentally sustainable ways. Using a multipronged approach to improving healthcare sustainability at Ambulance Victoria can reduce the environmental impact of pre-hospital healthcare services and thereby minimise the health impacts from the sector that are associated with dangerous climate change.

Mar 23, 2023
Renewable energy makes reusables better - value of Life Cycle Assessments

CODA Change and Sustainable Healthcare. Climate change is a pernicious environmental and health threat to humanity. Yet, healthcare itself pollutes, contributing to approximately 5% of total global anthropogenic emissions. What can be done to avoid this harm? Forbes McGain has spent 15 years undertaking research with colleagues to discover healthcare’s environmental footprint, with a particular emphasis upon practical efforts to reduce this environmental and economic burden. In this discussion we will hear of a series of micro, meso, and macro actions that each can contribute to reducing our carbon and other environmental footprints at work. Mico: all clinicians have agency to avoid, reduce, reuse, and if none of these are possible, recycle. Further, efforts to provide excellent primary care such as preventing obesity, diabetes, and drug harms, and delivering vaccinations are integral to ameliorating healthcare’s environmental footprint. From titrating oxygen on the hospital wards to deliver enough, but no more for patients, to undertaking antibiotic stewardship (and switching from i.v. to oral preparations) there are actually many daily activities in healthcare that could reduce our environmental footprint whilst delivering ongoing safe patient care. Meso: Collaboration is the key here! There are many low carbon healthcare activities that cannot be ameliorated without teamwork, for example at the GP clinic, hospital ward, or operating theatre level. A good example within hospitals are efforts to convert single use to reusable equipment. Although evidence is presented of the economic and environmental benefits of reusable anaesthesia equipment such information (and publications) has not lead to widespread adoption of such approaches. The importance of champions in each hospital and collaborating with clinical and non-clinical colleagues in hospitals is emphasized. Forming hospital environmental sustainability committees, and alliances with hospital executives and the board is vital. Macro: Advocacy at the medical and nursing societal and colleges level to incorporate environmentally sustainable healthcare into routine clinical education, examinations, and research agendas is the work of concerted groups of clinicians. Influencing the various state, territory and national governments to develop/extend sustainable healthcare units will likewise form part of macro efforts. Joining the Doctors for the Environment, Australia (DEA), activating the ANMF and AMA to get involved in environmentally sustainable healthcare will augment such efforts. Full Sails on Our Journey!

Mar 23, 2023
Decarbonisation on the clinical floor

Climate change is now our lived experience. With no vaccine to reduce its impact on health, the only preventative strategy we have is to reduce emissions, including healthcare delivery. The greatest portion of healthcare’s emissions profile comes from the stuff we use, so we have to change what we do. But how? Decarbonisation on the clinical floor is a look at every day work activities. It is bridging the gap between abstract concept and service delivery. It comes with triple bottom line wins – people, planet, and profit. The future isn’t written yet. The things we do now are what make it. We have choices to make that matter. We need visionaries to show us the direction. We need practical examples that bridge the gap between ambition and action. We need to tell the climate story in a way that draws people in, that empowers them to take action and enables us to be part of the solutions.

Mar 23, 2023
The NHS targets and pathway (setting the scene)

Nick Watts   In today’s podcast, Nick Watts - chief sustainability officer at the NHS speaks about why - when the NHS says there are three things they want to implement over the next decade - their response to climate change is number two.   Watts explains that they understand the health implications of a rise in temperatures, they understand that it means a doubling of the number of high risk health facilities in flood zones, and a tripling of the average duration of fatal heatwaves and notes that they saw what that looks like for our healthcare system.   He talks about how while the average across a summer the UK face 2200-2400 excess deaths from heatwaves; the recent six-day heatwave saw 12800 deaths – six times the usual amount. That’s why the NHS cares deeply about this.   If the climate crisis is a healthcare crisis, Watts says that it’s important to face it head on. Principally, he says, acute care is responsible for the NHS’s emissions, while primary care also comes in strong due to its prescriptions and medicines.   He discusses how in order to cultivate real change, you don’t just run at one small part – turning off the lights and turning the temperature down simply isn’t enough - you need look at every single emission you can possibly think of. For the NHS it means net zero by 2045.   NHS reports publicly to both their board and 1.4million NHS professionals every single year. Watts says that it hit first year emissions target; he promises they’re going to hit their second. It will, however, start getting hard to hit their targets from year 5 onwards.   Transparency is critical. Milestones and scope need to be clear.   Watts explains that from 2027 onwards the NHS will no longer purchase from anyone that does not meet or exceed their commitments to net zero.   He says that while the NHS will do absolutely everything in their power, they can’t run at this alone. The challenge is too big, medicine is too complex. Thankfully the NHS isn’t alone. 14 other countries followed suit in committing to reaching net zero.   To end, Watts insists that it’s when other people take note, start taking this seriously, and when other healthcare systems start to engage that net zero stops becoming possible, and starts to become inevitable.  

Mar 23, 2023
Early management of sepsis with Emergency Department Nurse Gladis Kabil

Sepsis in other words ‘life-threatening organ dysfunction’ in response to infection is a leading cause of death worldwide and a global health priority recognised by the World Health Organisation. In Australia, for adults with sepsis admitted to the intensive care unit, the in-hospital mortality is estimated as 18–27%. Early recognition of sepsis, prompt administration of antibiotics and resuscitation with intravenous fluids for those with features of hypoperfusion or shock are the mainstays of initial treatment. Emergency departments often being the first point of contact for patients presenting with sepsis, are required to prioritise sepsis as a medical emergency. The “Sepsis Kills” program implemented across the nation aims to reduce unwarranted clinical practice variation in management of sepsis.   In a recent Australian based study conducted across four emergency departments in Western Sydney Local Health District, among 7533 patients with suspected infection, a reduction in risk of in-hospital mortality was observed for each 1000 mL increase in intravenous fluids administered in patients with septic shock or admitted to ICU. However, despite evidence showing mortality benefits, not all aspects of sepsis care have been given the needed attention. In the same setting, out of 4146 patients with sepsis, 45% of them did not receive intravenous fluids in the emergency departments within the first 24 hours. Younger patients with greater severity of illness and presented to smaller hospitals were more likely to receive fluids.    The unanswered questions regarding the facilitators and barriers influencing intravenous fluid administration in sepsis are being explored using qualitative methods. Several emergency physicians and nurses have provided insight into aspects that influence their ability to provide appropriate fluid resuscitation such as constantly overcrowded emergency departments with chronic staff shortages of skilled health professional, failure to recognise sepsis early, the complexity of the presentations and lack of resources. Awareness of these challenges among stakeholders is the need of the hour. Leaving no one behind and not disregarding the critical aspects of sepsis care are crucial. Recognition of these factors and sustainable interventions are necessary to improve clinical outcomes for patients.   For more head to our podcast page #CodaPodcast

Mar 17, 2023
A Physiotherapist Perspective with Michelle Paton

Physiotherapists form a key part of the multi-disciplinary team in the Intensive Care, focusing on both respiratory care and optimisation of function. This talk will discuss the role of physiotherapy across the continuum specifically in the management of an acutely unwell septic patient. I will discuss the focus of a physiotherapy assessment, main treatment aims, some of the barriers for the implementation of physiotherapy in ICU, while identifying strategies to enable appropriate application of physiotherapy techniques. For more head to our podcast page #CodaPodcast

Mar 15, 2023
A Pre-hospital Physician Perspective with David Anderson

Sepsis is a common presentation in the prehospital and retrieval environment, with most cases having a respiratory, urinary or soft tissue origin. However the best practice for identifying and management sepsis in the prehospital environment remains unclear.  Despite sepsis having been a priority for in hospital guidelines and protocols for decades now, relatively little attention has been paid to prehospital sepsis management. Traditional teaching is that early antibiotics in sepsis save lives, however trials examining this are observational and confounded by outdated ICU care. An appropriately sensitive and specific tool for the prehospital identification of sepsis remains elusive. NEWS2 is common and lactate-modified QSOFA emerging (although prehospital lactate measurement remains difficult). The role of prehospital antibiotics, and the most appropriate one are also unclear. Most ambulance services that carry antibiotics use ceftriaxone. The retrieval environment is similar, with sepsis probably being the single commonest reason to call a retrieval service.   For more head to our podcast page #CodaPodcast

Mar 14, 2023
Follow up and discharge planning with Wade Stedman

As part of the Sepsis Workshop, this presentation will briefly touch on the challenges that patients and their families face on discharge from hospital after an admission for sepsis.  For more head to our podcast page #CodaPodcast

Mar 01, 2023
An ICU Trainee Perspective, Yvette Low

As an ICU registrar you meet septic patients at different points in time: as the first responder, asking ‘could this be sepsis?’; as the second responder, admitting the patient to the ICU; or the third responder, having to consider adjuncts in the deteriorating patient. Each of these presents different challenges and learning experiences, making the reality of managing sepsis more complex than one might first expect. For more head to our podcast page #CodaPodcast

Feb 28, 2023
A Research Perspective with Simon Finfer

As with everything else, ICU management of sepsis should ideally the evidence based. Evidence based practice combines the best scientific knowledge (evidence) with patient preferences and clinical assessment and judgement.   While the pursuit of specific pharmaceutical agents to treat Sepsis has resulted in the expenditure of billions of dollars without producing a single effective agent, much of what we do in the treatment of patience with Sepsis can be evidence based. Clinicians make literally hundreds of decisions day on the management of an individual patient in the ICU, often these decisions are made routinely without a great deal of thought about the reasoning behind them. Every decision made about the treatment of a critically ill patient should be based on evidence or the belief that the action resulting from that decision will improve a patient centred outcome for that particular patient. A patient centred outcome is an outcome that affects how the patient feels, functions or survives meaning we should question every decision we make to ask whether it is going to improve one of those outcomes.   The best evidence on which to base of such decisions comes from large robust randomised controlled trials conducted by unbiased investigators. The last 20 years has seen the emergence and maturing of regional and national clinical trials groups who conduct such studies and increasingly collaborate with each other. (2) Such collaboration is often essential to perform studies large enough to provide evidence to guide clinical practice such collaboration is often essential to perform studies large enough to provide evidence to guide clinical practice. As someone who designs and contacts clinical trials I am well aware that they provide evidence on a population basis. Each trial result is the net of harm and benefit resulting from the treatment being studied and even when a treatment is proven to have a net benefit there may be some patients who are harmed by the use of that treatment. A graphic example of this is someone who suffers a massive intracranial haemorrhage when treated with thrombolysis. Causing visible harm to a patient may shake a clinician's faith in an effective treatment making it important that we accept such tragic events without changing our practice to deny that effective treatment to future patients.   Research, like clinical practice, has inherent imperfections. Researchers, like clinicians, need to recognise this and be prepared to put their hand up and admit when they have been wrong. Conducting robust studies of appropriate size in an effective collaborative research group is the best way to avoid being wrong too often!   For more head to our podcast page #CodaPodcast

Feb 28, 2023
A Speech Pathology Perspective with Amy Freeman-Sanderson

Sepsis causes organ and tissue dysfunction in response to severe infection, resulting in significant physical and cognitive morbidities. For patients diagnosed with severe sepsis, admission to an intensive care unit and use of an artificial airway are often required. The sequalae of severe sepsis necessitating critical care can result in significant changes to a patient’s swallowing and communication function. These negative changes and impacts to function can occur during and after a diagnosis of sepsis, and ultimately impact a patient’s health and functional status. The nature and long-term recovery of swallowing and communication function is still to be completely understood; however evidence affirms recovery continues well beyond hospital discharge.   This presentation will focus on tasks we do daily – eating, drinking and speaking. Specifically, the nature of swallow impairments will be described, and the impact of this new disability will be explored from the perspective of the patient’s body structure, function and activities. Core components of swallowing safety and efficiency will be described, alongside the role of assessment and management within and beyond the ICU. Changes to communication including altered voice, speech and language function will be described. Outcomes of altered communication function over the continuum of care during, and after hospital will be explored. The evidence base and the lived experience of sepsis and patient stories will underpin the content delivered in this presentation.   The final aim of the presentation will be to describe and highlight the role of speech pathology, an allied health profession, in the management of swallowing and communication function. Following the workshop attendees will be able to (1) describe the characteristics of swallowing and communication disorders; (2) have knowledge of the impact of these new disabilities; and (3) will be able to describe the role of speech pathology in the healthcare team for the patient with sepsis.   For more head to our podcast page #CodaPodcast

Feb 27, 2023
Acute Paediatrics - Beyond the Patient is the Family

Dr Greg Kelly – a paediatric intensivist at Westmead Children’s Hospital – is today’s guest, on the #Coda22 podcast, during which he discusses a little girl called Abbie, who has lived in ICU for almost two years, and how she represents a very important group of patients – who are a tiny fraction of admissions, but a huge proportion of the workload at Westmead Children’s Hospital. Such patients are complex in such a way that no-one knows exactly what to do with them; nor how to respond to them. He goes on to discuss the problems they see every day at Westmead Children’s Hospital, and what the practitioners can do about them.

Feb 16, 2023
Know the Patient: Patient- Context and Acute Medical Cases Panel Discussion

This session presents a series of medical cases with important clinical caveats. Additionally, a contextual discussion follows, focussing on the social determinants of health and their integral importance in delivering high quality care. The practice of acute medicine requires many skills to ensure the delivery of the highest quality care. Clinical knowledge and skill are essential, but equally communication, empathy, social/cultural awareness and advocacy are also vital. Knowing our patients and understanding their circumstances provides a foundation on which clinical practice can then be contextually applied. Without context raw facts can be misleading and even result in misdirected treatment plans.

Feb 16, 2023
Gender and Acute Coronary Syndrome

In this week’s episode of the #CodaPodcast, Gemma Figtree – a Cardiologist and Professor discusses the profound inequality of gender issues.

Feb 16, 2023
Connecting to Homelessness

In this week’s episode of the #CodaPodcast, Dr Daniel Nour – who founded Street Side Medics a not-for-profit, GP-led mobile medical service for people experiencing homelessness - in August 2020 talks about his grave concern for the homeless who have gone untreated for years. He talks about how it was seeing the inequality in healthcare among the homeless that made him want to do something about it and how we often think about their need for shelter and food, but not for suitable healthcare. He also discusses the barriers that face homeless people and what it was that led him to launch Street Side Medics.

Feb 15, 2023