Kiddushin 39 - September 21, 6 Tishrei
SEP 21, 2023
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Different opinions are offered regarding whether or not laws of orla apply outside of Israel and if they do apply, does it apply to produce that is safek orla? Rabbi Yochanan ruled strictly both about orla and diverse kinds (kelaim) outside of Israel to the extent that he said that one who transgresses the prohibition of diverse kinds receives lashes. How could this be if diverse kinds outside of Israel are only forbidden by rabbinic law? To resolve this, they distinguish between tree grafting and planting seeds of diverse kinds. Rav Yosef was mixing seeds together and planting them. They raise a difficulty against this from the Mishna that holds that diverse kinds are forbidden by rabbinic law outside of Israel. To resolve this, they distinguish between diverse kinds in a vineyard (forbidden) and diverse seeds planted together (permitted). The Mishna states that one who performs one mitzva is rewarded with good things, long life and inherits the land. One who does not perform one mitzva, does not receive these blessings and does not inherit the land. How is this Mishna reconciled with the Mishna in Peah 1:1 that there are specific mitzvot for which one receives reward in this world? There are several ways to understand our Mishna - is it referring to reward in this world or the next world? Rabbi Yaakov, after seeing a child fulfilling both the mitzva of honoring his father and sending off the mother bird, both of which promise long life, and falling and dying on his way down the tree, he concluded that righteous people suffer in this world in order to receive more reward in the World-to-Come. This same story caused Elisha ben Avuya to leave the religion. Some suggest it was a different incident - that he saw the tongue of Chutzpit the translator being dragged on the floor by a pig after he was killed by the Romans.

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